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An elaborate theory has been developed that elemental particles such as quarks and leptons are very small strings, which may be open or closed.
From the work of Aage* Bohr and Dan Mottelson we have that at the nuclear level the angular momentum of a structure is quantized according to the formula
where J is the moment of inertia of the structure, ω is its rate of rotation, h is Planck's constant divided by
2π and I is a positive integer.
The moment of inertia of a circular closed ring of radius r and mass m rotating like a wheel is mr². The moment of inertia for a closed ring rotating like a flipping coin is same as that of the ring rotating as a wheel.
The masses of the up and down quarks are estimated to 1/470 and 1/296 of the mass of a proton, respectively
Therefore the minimum rate of rotation is given by
A ring rotating this fast through spinning and flipping motion would have the appearance and effect of a spherical shell.
The Danish name Aage is properly pronounce like the English word owe with a slight eh at the end. This is because the proper spelling of this name in Danish is Åge. The letter å has the sound oh.
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