San José State University
Thayer Watkins
Silicon Valley
& Tornado Alley

Principles of Invariance
in Physics


Theoretical particle physics works by formulating the Lagrangian function for a system; the Lagrangian L being the difference between kinetic energy K and potential energy V; i.e.,

L = K − V

From the Lagrangian equations can be established that give the dynamics of the system. Then transformation of the equation are considered that leave the Lagrangian unchanged. These are the symmetries of the system. For examples of Lagrangian analysis see Particle Physics.

Examples of Invariance in Physics

HOME PAGE OF applet-magic
HOME PAGE OF Thayer Watkins