San José State University
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Linkages of Sumer, Dilmun and Mohenjo-daro

Since Sumer played such a seminal function in world civilization and the Sumerians appeared on the world stage with a completely developed civilization it is of interest where they came from. In the Sumerian texts there are references to the land of Dilmun which seems to indicate that it was the original homeland of the Sumerians.

The apparent location of Dilmun is the island of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. There are about one hundred thousand grave mounds on Bahrain and excavations reveal the remains of an extensive port city. Bahrain has some fresh water wells that are crucial for provisioning of trading ships in the Persian Gulf area. Its island location gave Bahrain security from marauders. Bahrain was therefore a natural site for a trading city-state. Such port cities because of the interaction of people of many different languages and cultures usually develop sophisticated cultures and economies of their own.

As the map below indicates Dilmun-Bahrain was most likely an important link between the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Indus River valley.

Bibliography on Dilmun




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