﻿ On the Charge of Particles Being Due to a Subparticle
San José State University

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On the Charge of Particles
Being Due to a Subparticle

## Introduction

There are multitude of possible particles. Only a few types exist nature.

One very strong bit of evidence for this conjecture is that there is no massless particle with a charge. There are massless particles such as photons but none of them have a charge.

Now consider the masses of the three types of leptons: electrons. muons and tauons. Those masses in terms of electron masses are 1, 207 and 3400. The sizes in terms of the radius of an electron are 1, 15 and 58. This variation in size but with a constant charge strongly suggests that each lepton contains a subparticle of charge with constant mass and charge.

## Magnetic Moments

The magneti moment μ of a particle is

#### μ = kQR²ω

where Q is charge, R is average distance of charge from center of rotation, ω is the rate of rotation .and k is a constant indicating the geometric structure of the charge distribution. If the charge is distributed over a spherical surface k=2/3. If over a spherical ball k=2/5. <..p>Here are the measured magnetic moments of the leptons. <.h2> ..

>
Magnetic Moments of the Leptons
LeptonMagnetic Moment
electron2.002319
muon2.002332
tauon2.002354
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The magnetic moment μ of a particcle is given by

#### μ = kQRc²ω/

where Q is the net charge of the particle, Rc is the average radius of the charge distribution, ω is the rate of rotation of the charge and k is a constant depending upon the nature of the charge distribution. For a spherical surface k=2/3 and for a spherical ball k=2/5.

Given the equality of μ, Q, k for the leptons it is quite plausible that the mass of the charge subparticles is the same for all of the leptons and therefore the ωs is the same and hence the Rcs are same. Thus the charge distributions of the leptons are the same and constitute a subparticle. The quark theory of nucleon structure involves an Up quark having a charge of +(2//3) of the charge of the magnitude of an electron's charge e and a Down quark having a charge of −(1/3)e. Therefore the quantum of electrical charge is (1/3)e. Let this quantum be denoted as ε. Thus the charge of an Up quark is 2ε and that of a Down quark is −ε. The leptons all have charges of −3ε,

The logical structure of the three quanta of charge is as three concentric spherical shells.

## The Mass of a Quantum of Charge

Let the mass of a charge quantum be denoted as mε.

If there existed a lepton corresponding to an electron but without a charge the mass of an electron would be equal to the mass of that particle plus 3mε.

There could also be a neutral particle that is neutral because it contains offsetting charges. For example there is the neutron. The mass of a neutron is 2.73 electron masses larger than the mass of the proton. Since we know that the mass of the charge subparticle has to be less than or equal to the mass of an electron this would indicate that there are more than one charge subparticle.

## Conclusions

Particles with a charge equal to that of an electron contain three quantum charge particles each with a charge equal to one third of the charge of an electron. They may be spatially arranged as three concentric spherical shells. This would provide stability and explain the absence of single units of charge.