|San José State University|
& Tornado Alley
Module Model of Nuclear Structure
The nuclides with filled shells have all of the spin pairs formed so the effect of an additional nucleon on binding energy is entirely due to the strong force between the additional nucleon and the nucleons in the filled shells. It has been found that if the strong force charge of a proton is taken as +1 the strong force charge of the neutron is −2/3. Thus the net strong force charge of an alpha particle or alpha module is +2/3. Thus an additional proton to the the alpha module nuclei should be repelled and the effect on binding energy negative. However the effect on an additional neutron should be an attraction and a positive effect on binding energy. The test at least partial corroborates the model. What is given below is another test of the model along the same lines.
If two protons are added to an alpha module nuclide the binding energy is increased by the amount due to the formation of a proton-proton spin pair and the net sum of the strong force interaction of those two protons with the the nucleons of the alpha module nuclide. If three protons are added the binding energy is increased by the amount due to the addition of two protons plus the strong force interaction of the third proton with the proton-proton spin pair. Thus the difference in binding energy of the α+3p nuclide and the α+2p should give the magnitude of the interaction between the third proton and the proton-proton spin pair. The following table shows the result of this test.
|The Effects of adding three protons to the alpha module nuclides|
|The Effects of adding three neutrons to the alpha module nuclides|