San José State University

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Further Corroboration of the Alpha
Module Model of Nuclear Structure

The Alpha Module Model of Nuclear Structure

This model consists of the following elements

Estimates of the separate effects were obtained using regression analysis applied to the binding energies of nearly three thousand nuclides. Those estimates are given below.

The Results of Regression Analysis
VariableCoefficient
(MeV)
t-Ratio
Number of
Alpha Modules
42.64120923.0
Number of
Proton-Proton
Spin Pairs
13.8423452.0
Number of
Neutron-Neutron
Spin Pairs
12.77668165.5
Number of
Neutron-Proton
Spin Pairs
13.6987565.3
Proton-Proton
Interactions
−0.58936−113.8
Neutron-Proton
Interactions
0.3183195.8
Neutron-Neutron
Interactions
−0.21367−96.6
Constant49.37556−112.7
0.99988

Thus the effect of spin pair formations are on the order of 13 million electron volts (MeV) whereas the effect of single interactions through the strong force is a fraction of 1 MeV. The signs of all the spin pair formations are all positive reflecting that spin pair formation involves an attraction between nucleons. The signs of the interaction effects vary according to the condition that like nucleons are repulsed from each and unlike nucleons are attracted to each other.

The Effects of an Additional Proton and an Addition
Neutron When the Nuclear Shells are Filled

When all the shells are filled an additional proton or an additional neutron goes into the next shell. There are no spin pairs or alpha module which the additional proton or neutron can be part of. Their effects are strictly the effects of their strong force interactions which the other nucleons. The effects are shown in the tables below.

The Effect on Binding Energy of an Additional
Proton to the Alpha Module Nuclides (MeV)
nucleons
of each type
alpha modules alpha+1p Increment Increment
per nucleon
2 28.295674 26.33 -1.965674 -0.4914185
8 127.619336 128.21961 0.600274 0.03752
20 342.052 343.137 1.085 0.02713
28 483.988 484.682 0.694 0.012397

The Effect on Binding Energy of an Additional
Neutron to the Alpha Module Nuclides (MeV)
nucleons
of each type
alpha alpha+1n Increment Increment
per nucleon
2 28.295674 27.41 -0.885674 -0.2214185
8 127.619336 131.76266 4.143324 0.25896
20 342.052 350.4147 8.3627 0.20907
28 483.988 494.235 10.247 0.18298
50 824.9 835.6 10.7 0.10700

The Ratio of the Effect on Binding
Energy of an Additional Neutron to
the Effect of an Additional Proton
nucleons n/p ratio
2 0.45057013
8 6.90238791
20 7.707557604
28 14.76512968

If the strong force charge of a proton is +1 and that of a neutron −2/3 then the net strong force charge of an alpha module is +2/3. Thus when a neutron is added to a nuclide of 28 alpha modules there is an increase in binding energy of 10.247 MeV. Per alpha module this 0.36596 MeV or 0.0914l9 net MeV per nucleon. It is a positive figure as it should be. For the effect of an additional proton the picture is quite different. The effect of adding an proton to the nuclide of 28 alpha modules is only 0.694 MeV, which reduces to 0.02479 per alpha module or 0.00613 net MeV per nucleon. It is not a negative figure as the Model predicts but it is satisfyingly much less than the effect for a neutron. This is true for all of the shells except the first one.

The explanation for the small positive value for the proton probably is the same as the explanation of negative ions in which an electron clings to an atom with a net negative charge. That explanation is the phenonomena of same-shell shielding for particles with overlapping fields. See the puzzle of negative ions for a full explanation.

(To be continued.)

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